Offensive Fundamentals

  1. Ball Handling
    1. Keep Ball low
    2. Contol with fingers
    3. Keep body in basketball position
    4. Head up, eyes forward
    5. Be able to use both hands effectively
    6. Types of dribble
      1. Speed
        1. Get from one point to another as quickly as possible
        2. Push ball out in front
        3. Keep ball at approximately waist level
      2. Crossover or change-of-direction
        1. Plant same foot as hand being used to dribble
        2. Take other foot in opposite direction forming a V cut
        3. As change hands with the dribble, cross the ball over in front by keeping it low
        4. Push ball back out in front after changing hands with the dribble
      3. Stop-and-go or change-of-pace
        1. Used when coming off a speed dribble
        2. Come to sudden slow down wihlie keeping the ball under control more to the side
        3. Freeze defensive players, then push the ball back out in front
        4. Get back to maximum speed as quickly as possible
      4. Spin or reverse
        1. Plant opposite foot of hand being used to dribble
        2. Swing other foot behind while pulling the ball around 180°
        3. Next dribble will now be with the opposite hand
      5. Hockey Step
        1. Come to a stop while maintaining control of the basketball
        2. Bang feet quickly
        3. Use hand and shoudler fakes to get defensive player off balance
        4. Use a crossover step and push ball back out in front in same hand as which player wishes to go
      6. Back down the court
        1. Back is to defensive players
        2. Keep body between ball and defensive player
        3. Use head and shoulder fakes to get defensive players off balance
        4. Use a crossover step and push ball back out in front in same hand as which player wishes to go
      7. Back donw the court
        1. Back is to the defensive player
        2. Keep body between ball and defensive person
        3. Dribble with hand opposite the direction desired (if going to the ball handler’s left, ball should be in right hand)
        4. Opposite arm should be up about chest level with elbow bent
        5. Look over the shoulder opposite of the hand that is handling the basketball
        6. Feet should be miving in a defensive shuffle movwement
        7. When changing direction
          1. Plant same foot as the direction taken
          2. Swing other foot 60° to 90° while keeping body between defensive player and the ball
          3. Turn head to look over other shoulder
          4. Place ball in other hand
          5. Opposite arm now goes up to protect
      8. Behind-the-back
        1. While going forward pull ball around back as opposite foot steps forward
        2. Ball continues to be dribbled with opposite hand
  2. Shooting
    1. Lay-ups
      1. Concentrate on target
      2. Extend shooting arm toward target
      3. Jump off foot opposite the shooting hand
      4. Drive same lef as shooting hand up toward basket
      5. Think soft
      6. Jump-stop lay-up
        1. After last dribble come to two-footed stop
        2. Land on balance
        3. Feet should be about shoulder-width apart and parallel with the backboard
        4. Drive ball up to basket using the strong hand
    2. Hook shot
      1. Aim for target–either spot on backboard or back of iron
      2. Ball comes off the thigh of the shooting hand with shooting hand underneath ball and other hand on top of ball
      3. Look over shoulder closest to basket
      4. Arch back
      5. Drive snae lef as shooting hand up in execution of a high jump
      6. Follow through on shot—-proper rotation
    3. Jump shot
      1. Form
        1. Shooting-side foot should be slightly in front of other foot for best balance
        2. Feet and body should be square with target
        3. Knees should be bent; flex legs for power and rhythm
        4. Eyes should be on target and not follow shot
        5. Ball should be held on fingers, palm off ball
        6. Shooting hand should be underneath ball
        7. Non-shooting hand must be on side of ball
        8. Shooting wrist cocked
        9. Elbow of shooing arm should be in toward the body and underneath the basketball arm forms a rectangle and ball is off to the shooting hand side of the head
        10. Extend shooting arm straight up on shot; do not let arm form a triangle
        11. Follow through
          1. Wrist comes all the way through after ball leaves hand so that middle finger points down into the bucket
          2. Ensure ball having proper backspin on shot
      2. Shoot at peak of jump or just before
      3. Jump straight up on shot
      4. Shot selection
        1. Never shoot off balance
        2. Don’t take bad shots– experience, coaching philosophy, and point in the game at which shot is taken will determine if it is a good or bad shot
      5. Maintain a rhythm; shooting motion must be smooth (no hitches or hesitations)
      6. As a coach, do not fool with a shooter who is successful
    4. When shooting off a dribble, make last dribble hard
    5. Have confidence
  3. Free Throw Shooting
    1. Get in the position which is most comfortable
    2. Do the same thing every time
    3. Relax
    4. Have confidence; see the ball going in before shooting
    5. See Part 2, C, Jump shot
  4. Inside Moves
    1. Positioning
      1. Rule: alwasy be on the box or above it
      2. Wide base, elbows up, knees flexed
      3. Give target for pass
      4. Always receive pass with both feet on the floor (can then use either foot as a pivot foot)
      5. Be active with the fett in order to maintain position on defensive player
      6. Adjust to defensive man
        1. If being guarded behind him
          1. Keep feet wide and try to keep contact with defensive player by using buttocks
          2. Elbows should be up about shoulder height
          3. Knees flexed
          4. Hands up to give target passer
          5. Move slightly toward ball when pass is thrown
        2. If being fronted
          1. Turn body sideways so that it could intersect the back of the defensive player 90° angle
          2. Use the thigh and hip of the leg closest to the defensive players to press aagainst the buttocks to move player off the lane a little further
          3. Place forearm closest to the defensive person at the back of the neck (be sure not to use it to push off)
          4. Put far arm away from defensive player up to give a target to the passer
          5. On lob pass, go after basketball and catch on balance with two-footed stop
        3. If guarded on a side
          1. Keep body sideways so that it could intersect the middle of the defensive player’s body at a 90°m angle
          2. Use the closer hip to the defensive person in order to maintain position
          3. Place closer forearm to the defensive up by throat area (be sure not to throw it or use it to push off)
          4. Place far arm from defense out so as to give a target
          5. On pass, move toward ball using body to shield defensive player
    2. Types of move
      1. Power moves
        1. Feet should be parallel with the backboard
        2. Give ball fake
          1. Take ball out of chest on a 45° angle
          2. Raise back up to top of head level
        3. Jump up and in towards the basket
        4. Use strong hand to shoot
        5. Try to use arms and body to protect ball from block
      2. Hook shot (see part 2, Shooting)
      3. Jump hook
        1. Turn body sideways so that it is in a direct line with the target
        2. Jump off both feet
        3. Use far hand from defensive player to shoot
          1. arm should go in a line even with the body or just inside the body line
          2. Follow through on shot
        4. Get closer arm to defensive player up so as to keep defense awat from shot (be sure not to push off)
      4. Drop steps
        1. Drop baseline foot
          1. Drop foot directly towards basket
          2. Take one dribble with far hand from defense in roder to protect ball
          3. Come to jump stop so taht fett are parallel with the backboard
          4. Execute a power move
        2. Drop foul-line foot
          1. Drop foot directly across lane
          2. take one dribble with far hand from defensice player in order to protect ball
          3. Take two steps and head toward opposite box
          4. Execute a hook shot
        3. Can fake a drop step one way by turning shoulder and head (Keep both feet planted) and then drop step the other
      5. Turn and face basket
        1. Use one of two types of pivots
          1. Reverse pivot (swing non-pivot foot away toward defensive player)
          2. Inside pivot (swing non-pivot foot in toward defensive player)
        2. Pivot on baseline foot
          1. Bring ball up as turning to show the defense the ball
          2. Read the defense
          3. Two moves possible:
            1. If defense gives room, then shoot jump shot
            2. If defense comes up tight
              1. Execute a crossover
              2. Take one dribble and two steps
              3. Head for opposite box
              4. Shoot a hook shot
        3. Pivot on foul-line foot
          1. Bring ball up as turning to show the defense the ball
          2. Read the defense
          3. Two moves possible
            1. If defense gives room, then shoot jump shot
            2. If defense comes up tight
              1. Execute a crossover step
              2. Take one dribble
              3. Come to a jump stop with fett parallel to backboard
              4. Execute a power move
        4. Turnaround jumper
          1. Fake one of the two drop steps by actually dropping the baseline or foul-line foot
          2. In one motion pivot back on other fott to square up to basket and shoot jump shot
    3. When receiving the ball
      1. Keep ball up near chest
      2. Look over baseline shoulder immediately to read defensive player’s position
    4. Take what the defense gives
      1. If defensive player overplays on baseline side, then drop foulline across lane
      2. If defensive player overplays on foul line side, then drop baseline foot directly to basket
      3. If defensive players straight up, then look to use a move other than the drop steps
  5. Passing and Receiving Passes
    1. Passing
      1. Most important thing is to pick oout a target and hit it
      2. Make pass catchable
      3. Learn to read the defense
      4. Types of passes
        1. Chest
          1. Ball is thrown out of the chest with two hands
          2. Hands are on either side of the ball
          3. extend arms and follow through-thumbs should be pointing down
        2. Bounce
          1. Can use one or two hands (if two, then follow-through would be same as chest pass)
          2. Pick out a spot on the floor to hit so that ball comes up between thigh and waist level of receiver
        3. Baseball
          1. Throw with strong hand
          2. Use other hand to help hold ball until ready to release ball
          3. Throw off side of head
          4. Follow thorough straight with wrist (do not turn wrist sideways)
          5. Used in long-distance passing
        4. Overhead
          1. Keep ball over top of head, using two hands
          2. Throw and follow through (thumbs pointing down)
          3. Generally used in out letting a basketball and/or against zone defense
        5. Hook or curl
          1. Use a crossover to step across the defensive player’s body
          2. Throw ball from about shoulder pr armpit height away from defensive player
          3. Can use two hands or one hand
          4. Use bounce pass
          5. Generally used to get ball into a post
        6. Lob
          1. Throw ball above a defensive player to a teammate
          2. Must have proper touch- high and long enough to get over defense yet not too high or long to be out of teammate’s reach
      5. Use bounce pass into low post players unless being fronted(then may be able to use a lob)
      6. Do not be afraid to fake a pass one way and then go another
    2. Receiving passes
      1. Look ball into hands
      2. Always run over toward the pass: meet the pass
      3. Use hands as a cushion
  6. Outside Moves
    1. Receive pass and get into triple-threat position
      1. Do not put ball on floor immediately
      2. Turn and face basket
      3. Protect ball in waist to mid-section area
      4. Ball should be in hip area to the shooting hand side
      5. Try to get ball within shooting range
    2. Jab Step Series
      1. Always use same foot as shooting hand for the jab step
      2. Other foot is the pivot foot
      3. Proper form on jab step
        1. Throw it directly at the defensive player
        2. Should be a short, quick step on the ball of the foot
        3. Be careful not to overextend foot (stay on balance)
        4. Use ball to fake an opponent
      4. Types of moves
        1. Jab step-jumper
          1. Throw jab step
          2. Go straight up for jumper (do not bring jab step foot back before before shooting
          3. Used when defense moves backwards to prevent drive
        2. Jab step-extend-drive
          1. Throw jab step
          2. Extend jab step foot past defensive players’ feet
          3. Put ball on floor with hand away from defense and drive to basket
          4. Used when defensive player does not move or goes slightly forward
        3. Jab step-crossover-drive
          1. Throw jab step
          2. Execute a crossover with the jab-step foot
          3. Extend foot just outside of defensive player’s foot to get the advantage
          4. Put ball on floor with far hand from defense and drive to basket
          5. Used when defensive person over-adjusts to the side of the jab step
        4. Jab step-one-dribble-jump shot
          1. Throw jab step
          2. Take one quick, hard dribble to the jab foot side or to opposite side after executing a crossover step
          3. Be sure to put ball on the floor with hand furthest from defensive player
          4. Go straight up for jump shot
          5. Used when defense goes back on initial jab step
      5. Take what defense gives you
  7. Offensive Rebounding
    1. Crash boards consistently
    2. Avoid box-out
      1. Fake and go opposite–before defense makes contact step as though going in one direction and quickly step in the opposite
      2. Spin–attack middle of defensive player’s feet and spin around the player by using either foot as a pivot foot
      3. Hook step–lock feet with defensive rebounder in order to be on equal standing
      4. Pressure and spin–apply pressure to one side of defensive player and spin in the opposite direction
    3. Keep ball up
    4. Taps
      1. Control ball with fingers
      2. Use tap to keep ball alive when unable to control ball clearly
  8. Setting and Using Screens
    1. Setting screen
      1. Flex knees
      2. Hands should be on chest with elbows slightly out
      3. Make contact as long as player can use screen (if can’t see screen, then must give one step)
      4. Maintain wide base with feet
      5. Must stay stationary; cannot move once contact is made
    2. Using screens
      1. Set up defensive player by moving in opposite direction
      2. Wait for screen—always better to be late coming off a screen than early
      3. Make sure to run defensive player into screen
      4. Be ready to adjust cut or move if defensive starts to cheat on the screen
    3. Types of screen
      1. On-the-ball or two-player-game
        1. One offensive player sets a screen for a teammate with the ball
        2. Player with ball uses dribble off screen to drive to basket, look for jump shot, or a pass to teammate
        3. Person setting screen rolls to basket after contact
          1. Pivot on far foot from teammate
          2. Swings other foot in direction of the dribbler
          3. Put inside arm up to give target to teammate with ball
          4. Cuts on a line to the basket
      2. Down or front
        1. Both offensive players are away from the ball with one close to the basket and the other on the perimeter
        2. Player on the perimeter
          1. Goes down to screen for teammate
          2. Pivots on inside foot and swings other back to the ball (opening up to ball after screening)
          3. Tries to pin defensive player on back
        3. Player nearer the basket
          1. Comes off of teammate’s screen
          2. Gives target to player with ball to look for pass
          3. Looks for jump shot, pass inside to teammate posting up, or drive to basket
      3. Up or back
        1. Both offensive players are away from the ball with one closer to the basket and the other on the perimeter
        2. Player nearer the basket
          1. Goes up to screen for teammate
          2. If defensive switch, then screener seals to try to receive pass on path to basket
          3. If defense does not switch, then screener steps back after setting screen to look for jump shot
        3. Player on the perimeter
          1. Comes off teammate’s screen
          2. Cuts hard to basket to look for pass
      4. Low exchange
        1. Two players are stationed on the boxes on the foul land (one on each)
        2. Player on ballside box
          1. Goes away to screen for teammate on other box
          2. Can then possibnly seal back to ball by going opposite of teammate (if teammate goes low off screen, then seals back high)
        3. Player on weakside bow comes off screen by teammate either high or low to look for pass
      5. Screen opposite
        1. Player with the ball on the perimeter passes to a teammate in one direction and sets screen for a player away from pass
        2. Player getting screen uses it to cut to basket or to a spot on the perimeter near the ball for a jump shot
      6. Stationary
        1. One player establishes a screen for a teammate
        2. Teammate runs his opponent into the screen on a cut to the basket
      7. Pass and go behind
        1. One player on the perimeter passes to another and then goes behind in order to get ball back
        2. Player handling off ball sets screen
        3. Options for player getting handoff
          1. Drive directly to the basket
          2. Shoots jumper either immediately after handoff or by taking one dribble to the side
          3. Dribbles toward baseline and looks to pass to teammate on roll to basket
  9. Movement without the ball
    1. Always make sharp cuts— V cuts
    2. Types of moves
      1. Backdoor
        1. Players comes out toward bakk and plants far foot from basket and pivots back
        2. Pushes off that foot and cuts back to basket
        3. Does not turn back to the basketball
        4. Outside arm should be target for pass
      2. Buttonhook
        1. Player takes defensive to the basket and pivots on inside foot
        2. Swing other foot back to ball to open up
        3. Pins defensive player on back and looks to receive pass
      3. Square cut
        1. Used after a handoff on the foul line extended
        2. Player moves to near corner of the foul line and pivots on foot closer to basket
        3. Swing other leg back toward ball and opens up on cut to basket
        4. Pins the defensive player and looks for pass—gives target with inside arm
      4. Dip
        1. Offensive player executes a backdoor cut
        2. If defensive player prevents backdoor by overplaying, then offensive person makes a quick change of direction to dip in front of defense
          1. Plants outside foot and moves other foot in direction of basket
          2. Continues cut in front of defense
      5. Give-and-go
        1. Offensive player with the ball passes to a teammate and quickly cuts to the basket
        2. Depending on position of defensive player, offensive person making cut may have to set up defense by faking going away before cutting hard to basket
    3. Getting open to receive a pass
      1. Take defensive player to the basket on a hard cut
      2. Make outside foot (foot closest to the sidelines) the foot closest to the basket
        1. Plant it and pivot so as to face back out away from basket
        2. Extend other leg back out
      3. Moves quickly away from basket and gives outside arm as target to receive pass
  10. Off-the-Ball Defense